What are the components of bee venom?

  • polypeptides
  The main components of bee venom are polypeptides (about 70-80% of bee venom dry matter), such as melittin, melittin, MCD peptide, heart peptide, cycarpine, tropin, etc., of which melittin (about 50% of bee venom dry matter) and melittin (about 3% of bee venom dry matter) are the most abundant. Melittin has anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, analgesic, antibacterial, anti-radiation and anti-tumor effects, while melittin has inhibitory nervous excitation, anti-arrhythmia, improve microcirculation, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects.
  • enzymes
  There are at least 50 kinds of enzymes in bee venom, such as hyaluronidase, phospholipase (including phospholipase A1, phospholipase A2, etc.), lipase, glucosidase, amidase, etc., among which hyaluronidase (accounting for about 1-3% of bee venom dry matter) and phospholipase (accounting for about 1-2% of bee venom dry matter) are most abundant. Hyaluronidase has a strong biological activity and can promote the diffusion and penetration of other components of bee venom in the body, while phospholipase can decompose lecithin and has a strong role in hemolysis and immune function.
  • amines
  Bee venom is rich in amines (accounting for about 1% of the dry matter of bee venom), such as histamine, dopamine, putrescine, spermine, spermine, etc. The most representative amines are histamine and dopamine. Histamine can affect the response of many kinds of cells, and has the effects of dilating blood vessels, lowering blood pressure, causing allergy and regulating immune function, while dopamine is the precursor of norepinephrine. It has the function of adrenergic α and β receptors, and also acts on the dopamine receptors of the kidney, mesenteric blood vessels and coronary arteries
  • Amino acid
  Bee venom contains a certain amount of free amino acids such as leucine, glutamic acid, tryptophan, proline, arginine, aspartic acid, histidine, lysine, etc., of which leucine (about 0.3% of bee venom dry matter) and glutamic acid (about 0.3% of bee venom dry matter) have the highest content. Leucine, together with isoleucine and valine, can repair muscles, control blood sugar and provide energy, while glutamate plays an important role in protein metabolism and participates in many important chemical reactions in the body.
  • Summary: Bee venom is a very complex mixture, the main component is polypeptide substances, and polypeptide substances with the highest content of melittin, in fact, most of the effects of bee venom also come from melittin, such as anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, analgesic and immune regulation.
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